1.1 CBSE Curriculum -The curriculum refers to the lessons and educational content to be taught to a learner in a school. In empirical terms, it may be regarded as the sum total of a planned set of educational experiences provided to a learner by a school. It encompasses general objectives of learning, competencies to be attained, courses of study, subject-wise learning outcomes and content, pedagogical practices and assessment guidelines. The curriculum provided by CBSE is based on National Curriculum Framework-2005 and seeks to provide opportunities for students to achieve excellence in learning.

1.2 Salient Features of the CBSE Secondary School Curriculum-The Curriculum prescribed by CBSE strives to: 1. provide ample scope for holistic i.e. physical, intellectual and social development of students; 2. emphasize constructivist rather than rote learning by highlighting the importance of hands-on experience; 3. enlist general and specific teaching and assessment objectives to make learning competency-based; 4. encourage the application of knowledge and skills in real-life problem solving scenarios; 5. uphold the ‘Constitutional Values’ by encouraging values-based learning activities; 6. promote Critical and Creative Thinking aligned to the 21st Century Skills in classrooms; 7. integrate innovations in pedagogy such as experiential learning, Sport & Art-Integrated Learning ,toy-based pedagogy, storytelling, gamification etc. with technological innovations (ICT integration) to keep pace with the global trends in various disciplines.

1.3 Objectives of the Curriculum-The Curriculum aims to: 1. achieve cognitive, affective and psychomotor excellence; 2. enhance self-awareness and explore innate potential; 3. attain mastery over laid down competencies; 4. imbibe 21st century learning, literacy and life skills; 5. promote goal setting, and lifelong learning; 6. inculcate values and foster cultural learning and iternational understanding in an interdependent society; 7. acquire the ability to utilize technology and information for the betterment of humankind; 8. strengthen knowledge and attitude related to livelihood skills; 9. develop the ability to appreciate art and show case talents; 10. Promote physical fitness, health and well-being. 11. Promote arts integrated learning.

1.4 Curriculum Areas at Secondary Level-CBSE envisions the all-around development of students in consonance with the holistic approach to education and therefore, has done away with 3 artificial boundary between the co-curricular domain and the curricular domain. Secondary Curriculum provides students a broad and balanced understanding of subjects including languages, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science to enable students to communicate effectively, analyze information, make informed decisions, construct their worldview in alignment with constitutional values and move ahead in the direction of becoming productive citizens. The recent focus of CBSE is on the development of 21st-century skills in settings where each student feels independent, safe, and comfortable with their learning. The Board hopes that schools will try to align curriculum in a way so that children feel more connected to it and employ their learning in real-life contexts. To achieve this aim, it is extremely important that children acquire adequate knowledge and skills in other core areas like Health and Physical Education, Life Skills, Values Education, Art Education, Work Education. In an operational sense, the secondary curriculum is learner-centered with school being a place where students would be acquiring various skills; building self-concept, sense of enterprise, aesthetic sensibilities, and sportsmanship. Therefore, for the purpose of fostering core competencies in learners, this curriculum encompasses major learning areas.

1.5 Curricular Areas:-The curriculum envisages individual learning propensity and seeks to explore the potential of students in acquiring knowledge and skills. With greater orientation and research skills in core areas, students would evolve as judicious young adults with a sense of real self-estimate having true values and principles. The curricular areas are as follows: (i) Languages include Hindi, English and 37 other languages. The curricula in languages focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and, hence, develop effective communicative proficiencies. Learners use language to comprehend, acquire and communicate ideas in an effective manner. (ii) Social Science (Geography, History, Economics and Political Science) intends to make learners understand their cultural, geographical and historical milieus and gain in-depth knowledge, attitude, skills and values necessary to bring about transformation for a better world. Social Science includes the learning of history and culture, geographical environment, global institutions, constitutional values and norms, politics, economy, interpersonal and societal interactions, civic responsibilities and the incorporation of the above-mentioned learning. Learners appreciate and value everyone’s right to feel respected and safe, and, also understand their Fundamental Rights and Duties and behave responsibly in the society. (iii) Science: (Biology, Chemistry and Physics) includes gaining knowledge about Food, Materials, The World of the Living, How things work, Moving things, People and Ideas, Natural Phenomenon and Natural Resources. The Focus is on knowledge and skills to develop a scientific attitude and to use and apply such knowledge for improving the quality of life. The Curriculum promotes the ability to engage with sciencerelated issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen by being able to explain phenomena scientifically, evaluate and design 5 scientific enquiry, and interpret data and evidence scientifically. Students understand the importance of to apply scientific knowledge in the context of real-life situations and gain competencies that enable them to participate effectively and productively in life. (iv) Mathematics includes acquiring the concepts related to number sense, operation sense, computation, measurement, geometry, probability and statistics, the skill to calculate and organize, the ability to apply this Knowledge and acquired skills in their daily life and the skills to think mathematically. It also includes understanding of the principles of reasoning and problem solving. Children learn to rationalize and reason about pre-defined arrangements, norms and relationships in order to comprehend, decode, validate and develop relevant patterns. (v) Skills Electives- A well-skilled workforce is one of the key requirements for the prosperity and growth for any country. Some skills come from general education, but specific occupational skills are also important. Typically initial vocational education and training systems have a big part to play in supplying these skills. To develop skills and talents as a form of free expression, Board offers variety of competency based subjects under NSQF like Retail, Information Technology, Marketing & Sales, Banking, Finance, AI etc. Choosing any one Skill subject at secondary level can helps the child to pursue what truly interests or pleases him or her. This liberty promotes a sense of self-esteem in accepting one’s own talents and strengths. The curriculum and the study material for the Skill Electives is available on the CBSE academic website under the tab ‘Skill Education’ and can be accessed through the link: html. (vi) Art Education entails instruction in various art forms (visual as well as performing) with an aim to help children develop an interest for arts and encourage them to enthusiastically participate in related activities, thus, promoting abilities such as imagination, creativity, valuing arts

and cultural heritage. In addition, Arts should be integrated with other
subjects to promote creative thinking and expression
(vii) Health and Physical Education focuses on holistic development,
both mental and physical, understanding the importance of physical
fitness, health, wellbeing and the factors that contribute to them.
Focus of this area is on helping children develop a positive attitude
and commitment to lifelong, healthy active living and the capacity to
live satisfying, productive lives with the help of health management,
indigenous sports, Yoga, NCC, self-defense, fitness and life style
(viii) Work Experience: The Work Experience has been subsumed in the
Health and Physical Education, however, it is an integral part of
the curriculum and is given as much as focus as Health and Physical

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